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Exploring The Parks: Musings From El Morro National Monument

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El Morro's great bluff towers over the landscape/Lee Dalton

El Morro '“ the headland '“ is nestled along an ancient highway in central New Mexico between the town of Grants and the Pueblo of Zuni. Once upon a time, a pool of dependable water at the foot of a great cliff dictated that travelers stop here. It was the only sure water for about 40 miles in any direction. Once it sustained a fairly large ancestral pueblo village atop the bluff before it successively quenched the thirst of Spanish Conquistadores, missionary explorers, and others of the Spanish colony known as Nuevo Mexico. Two hundred years later, they were followed by Anglo-Americans as they pushed a new nation'™s borders farther and farther west. There was even a caravan of camels passing when the U. S. Army experimented with using them instead of horses or mules in the Southwest's deserts.

The smooth, tan sandstone of the tall bluff seemed to be an attractive canvas for travelers and those who lived here. Villagers from the now-ruined village we call Atsinna decorated it in places with petroglyphs. Perhaps inspired by their work, the man who was first Spanish governor of Nuevo Mexico '“ Don Juan de Oñate '“ paused here to write the first known modern inscription in 1605. 'œPaso por aqui,' he wrote. 'œPassed by here. . . 'œ

Now a few thousand people a year follow Don Juan and the others whose names are recalled here as they visit America'™s second or third national monument. El Morro was set aside by Teddy Roosevelt the same day -- December 8, 1906 -- he proclaimed Montezuma Castle National Monument after signing the Antiquities Act in 1906. El Morro is one of the little gems in the crown jewels of our national parks, and even though it may not be as noticeable as its bigger cousins, it is precious just the same.

I served as supervisory ranger at El Morro from 1971 to 1974 and remember it as one of my favorite places. It hasn'™t changed much. Quiet. Peaceful. Gentle. A place to savor and enjoy at leisure. A place where time seems to have called a time out and people long gone still touch our lives as we, too, pass by here.

I pulled in late the afternoon of May 14 and managed to snag one of the last two campsites in the nine-site camp on a road named 'œDark Sky Drive.' It'™s six in the evening now a day later, the camp is filled, but the only sounds are of a gentle breeze through the piñons and junipers and the ticking of a little clock inside my trailer. Silence reigns. Last night a coyote sang me to sleep and this morning at six I was thankful for my furnace when I looked at the thermometer outside and saw it stuck at twenty-four. It may be the middle of May, but at 7,300 feet spring is still struggling to get here. Once the sun rose above the mesa to the east, it warmed things rapidly, and by eight it was short-sleeve time again.

One of El Morro'™s best features is that it'™s a Fee Free area. No admission fee and camping costs nothing.

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Juan Gonsales' signature from 1629 is still easy to read/Lee Dalton

Most visitors pass by here quickly. A fast stop at the visitor center. Perhaps a look at their new award-winning film, 'œPaso por Aqui.' Maybe they'™ll jaunt out to the Inscription Rock Trail. If they are really feeling ambitious and energetic they may take the entire two-mile walk past the inscriptions and then up and over the top of the 200-foot sandstone bluff. There they will take a look at a hidden box canyon that has always reminded me of a special secret garden. They'™ll walk past a few excavated rooms of Atsinna and then descend a set of stairs. Back in their cars, they will rush on and never know how much they missed because they didn'™t tarry awhile longer.

I had been here a couple of years ago for the first time in a long time. On that visit I found myself profoundly disturbed by an obvious miasma of gloom that seemed to pervade the place. Rangers sat idly behind the information desk, greeting visitors as if we were intrusions. When I asked if any guided walks or other programs were scheduled, the answer was that 'œwe don'™t have enough staff for that. Budget cuts, y'™know.' Hmmmm. Five rangers and volunteers chatting behind the desk and not enough staff? Okay. Whatever. On top of the rock, I met a Navajo maintenance worker. As he passed I commented that it was good to see someone watching over El Morro. His reply was haunting '” 'œWell, someone has to . . . 'œ Later, in the campground I spoke with a couple more maintenance folks and learned one of them was the nephew of a man who'™d worked here with me. But little things they said made me realize that all was not well at El Morro.

I wondered if it was because the superintendent'™s office is now 40 miles away in Grants. Ol'™ Robert L. Morris would have skinned us all alive if he'™d gotten a whiff of this kind of discord. I learned that many, if not most, of the staff live offsite somewhere. Does the Park Service lose something when the people responsible for protecting and sharing our parks live somewhere else? Later, I wrote a somewhat critical letter to the then superintendent. Never received a reply.

Other things had changed, too. An absolutely obscene sewage lagoon located just east of the employee housing area is now the most prominent feature of the landscape viewed from the top of the great rock. A mile of sewer pipe could have placed that thing down at the northeast corner of the monument near the highway where it would not have been such a horrible eyesore. Whoever designed and approved that abortion should be drawn and quartered.

As soon as I walked through the visitor center door this time, however, I knew in an instant that there have been at least some changes. I was greeted with enthusiasm by supervisory interpreter Rick Best and two volunteers '“ Frankie Anderson and Margie, whose last name I didn'™t catch. Much better than my last visit.

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El Morro's waters once sustained the residents of Atsinna/Lee Dalton

Aside from the lagoon reflecting sun for miles, not much had happened inside the monument. There have been big changes in the larger community around it. More houses. More development. Inevitable change. But there'™s a much more subtle and, I believe, even far more important change. Today while I watched the movie, a Navajo man brought a young girl through to look at the displays. They talked very quietly in both English and Navajo as, I supposed, he explained El Morro to his daughter. Later, two busloads of third-grade students from Zuni Pueblo arrived. Well-behaved kids with teachers who wore Zuni and not Anglo skin. Kids who were enthusiastic about learning '“ a stark contrast to the silent, wary kids I remembered from school visits long ago when a native youngster could be punished for speaking his or her own language and none of the teachers could. Around me today I heard conversations in both Zuni and in English and I heard English being spoken without the accents and hesitation that once had been there.

I had to smile and I thought that maybe, just maybe, our nation might be growing up and beginning to realize the value of all our citizens. I found myself hoping that each of the kids who shared the VC with me will grow up to bright and happy and prosperous futures. It looks like they are off to good starts.

Then they headed out on the trail led by a ranger and couple of NPS volunteers and a Zuni wearing a maintenance uniform. Wow. A maintenance worker doing interpretation?

I met him later in the day and learned that he'™s actually a Historic Preservation Technician. The name tag on his shirt reads simply, C. Chimoni. He'™s working at El Morro to preserve the park'™s administration building. Built in the 1930s of native stone and mortar mixed on site, he'™s trying to repoint the rock where original mortar is crumbling. It is, after all, a historic structure now. He explained that he works throughout the Southwest on similar projects. He told of how he'™s been experimenting, trying to discover just the right mix and techniques for making up the lime-based mortar needed to restore old walls to as original condition as possible.

The visitor center movie tells some stories of the challenges involved in trying to keep Inscription Rock'™s inscriptions from fading away. It recounts some of the well-intended but misguided attempts of the past that wound up causing damage. Then I remember in my own time here and elsewhere when my colleagues and I chafed at new requirements that didn'™t seem to make sense. Things that required piles of paperwork. Environmental and historic assessments. Scientifically based plans in place of just trying to do the best we could with what knowledge and materials we had available.

Did we cause harm? I hope not.

Looking back, I'™m happy to see the additional safeguards now in place. Safeguards that hopefully will prevent debacles like the recent flurry at Effigy Mounds National Monument or more sewage lagoons to destroy a beautiful scene. Decisions and actions based not on hope alone but on good science, good history, and good sense. And even with all that, how can we really be sure we are doing it right? Is that even possible? Will still-developing knowledge someday show that we were wrong '“ again?

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Even green water is slaking on hot days/Lee Dalton

= = = =

About a mile east of the monument entrance is a small café called Ancient Way. I'™d heard rumors of how wonderful their pie is, so decided to go find out if they were true. THEY WERE! Unbelievably good. Crust unlike the crust on any other pie I'™ve ever eaten. Thin and flaky like some sort of exotic French pastry, and the cherry filling was definitely not straight from a can.

A colony of starving artists and musicians have found refuge in the mountains and forests around El Morro. Across the road is a small community art shop where local artists exhibit and hope to make sales. As I ate my pie at the café, a lady played quiet music on a harp nearby.

Next time I visit this land I'™ll have to remember to wander over to the Ancient Way to find out if rumors about their other offerings are as true as the one about their pie. But come to think of it, I'™ll be here tomorrow evening . . . .

= = = =

Evening and the campground is full again. I accept an invitation to join a couple beside their campfire. Jack and Marie Thompson alternate between northern Utah'™s winter skiing and Maine'™s summers. This is their first venture into the land of Nuevo Mexico. We talk awhile about parks and politics and the anti-public lands ravings of some of Utah'™s lawmakers. They tell me of a recent trek by a herd of ATVs into Recapture Canyon, an area in southeastern Utah closed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management to ATV use because of so much damage '“ a trek led by a county commissioner to gain attention with an election looming.

Then I find myself becoming an interpreter again and tell them tales I remember of El Morro'™s history. Of Cabeza de Vaca and Estaban, and the Seven Cities of Cibola. Of Fray Marcos de Niza. Of Coronado and his trip to where Kansas City now stands. Of Don Juan de Oñate and J. H. Simpson. And, of course, of Edward Fitzgerald Beale and the camels.

The moon begins to rise one night past full. In a campsite nearby, a young couple from Canada gently strum guitars and sing quietly. It all seems to fit together perfectly and I find myself thinking that, yes, this is the way it should be.

If anyone wonders why we have parks, this is the answer.

= = = =

The next day dawned bright and beautiful, so I joined Jack and Marie for a walk past the inscriptions and over the top of the rock. One problem exists, though, for those of us who want to remember the place with some quality in our photos. The visitor center and trail don'™t open until nine o'™clock. By then the light has already gone flat. Opening so late deprives serious photographers of that precious Golden Hour of morning light. Then, back at the visitor center, we met a long-term seasonal ranger named Jeremiah Maybee whose knowledge of the area helped answer a number of questions that had been haunting me because some of my 40-year-old memories are shadowy.

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Lt. James Simpson and Robert H. Kern, an artist, passed this way in 1849/Lee Dalton

A bit later, however, came the only jarring note of this trip. I was trying to doublecheck the names of some of the people who had helped make my stay more pleasant so I could thank them here in Traveler. That'™s when one of the staff stepped in and told the person I was speaking with that if I planned to publish anything about El Morro, it could only come from someone in the superintendent'™s office. This person should not be talking with me. That ruffed my feathers in the wrong direction, but rather than make an issue of it, I apologized and ended the conversation.

I had already gathered that the past problems I'™d seen at El Morro had been due to some serious internal conflicts. I'™m sure that even though personnel have changed since then, there is still a need in the political structure of the local administration to try to avoid any potential embarrassment. What better way to do that than to try to control what may be written by limiting who may speak with a writer?

I'™m sorry, but to my mind, that is not the way it should be. Yet given the realities of modern life in such a politically packed arena as our national parks, I guess I can understand it. It was things like this that led me to leave the Service many years ago. I'™m sorry that it still exists.

I also noticed, but didn'™t ask about, an apparent absence of any interpretive programs at El Morro. The 'œPrograms' section of the campground bulletin board was empty, and I never saw any sign of any interpreters on the trails. Even if formal guided walks are not offered, the presence of an interpreter on a trail provides not only protection for resources, it also helps visitors make a human connection with what they are seeing. Even though I was greeted with a much different welcome at the desk, I still wonder what all those people in uniforms are doing if none of them are available to interact with visitors along the Inscription Trail. I'™m an outsider now, but looking at things from an experienced point of view, it appears that what might be needed is a little creative leadership that remembers when you wear an arrowhead on your sleeve people are looking to you for an experience they won'™t soon forget. Those kinds of experiences don'™t happen at an information desk.

I'™m sure that if I'™d had the chance to ask more questions, I might have been provided with some reasons for what was happening. But everyone who works to manage our parks needs to remember that sometimes there is a fine line between reasons and poor excuses. Shouldn'™t the goal of any manager be to have a staff so well trained and feeling good enough about their jobs that one would not have to worry about what they might say '“ even to someone who might write about it?

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Mr. Long's carving is the most ornate at El Morro. He came by with Lt. Beale's Camel Corps/Lee Dalton

A few days later, I'™d have an entirely different experience at Chaco Culture National Historical Park.

I also don'™t think I'™ll ever become accustomed to seeing law enforcement rangers armed to the teeth wandering through places like El Morro or Chaco or Hovenweep. I guess it may be necessary, but believe that if it is, then it'™s a tragic necessity. At least, though, on one night at El Morro I did spot a young law enforcement ranger with a dark mustache and beard walking from one campsite to another and actually answering questions of an interpretive nature. Unfortunately, I was visiting the little house on the hill when he stopped at my humble abode, so I didn'™t have a chance to talk to him. I'™d have thanked him for getting out of his patrol truck and actually taking time to share with visitors stories of the place he protects.

To me, the don'™t talk incident only served to make my mission to spotlight and thank the peasants of the Service, the ones whose boots are on the ground and whose sweat falls on park trails instead of an air-conditioned office desk somewhere are all the more important. And I also know that I may be wrong or unfair in drawing some of the conclusions I'™ve made here. Perhaps I'™d have written something entirely different if I'™d felt comfortable asking more questions.

I hope I won'™t cause problems for anyone if I thank the people wearing green and gray at El Morro '“ even if I don'™t have official permission.

So thank you, Rick Best, C. Chimoni, Jeremiah Maybee, Frankie Anderson, Wendy Gordge, the mustachioed law enforcement ranger, and Margie Whose-Last-Name-Shall-Be-Unknown. Thank you, too, to all the rest of those I didn'™t meet who also labor at El Morro, whether they wear flat hats or hard hats. And thank you, also, to those who inhabit the Big Office in far away Grants.

Thank you all for working so hard to protect our special places. Thank you, too, for being courageous enough to be willing to stand up under the winds of political storms that may come your way. It ain'™t easy, that'™s for sure.

It'™s because of folks like all of you that I had the chance last night to sit in a peaceful campground and think to myself, 'œThis is the way it should be!'

Even if, sometimes, we could do even better.

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Great story Lee, really enjoyed it. I will put El Morro on my bucket list.

I think the NPS has a really difficult job anymore. I never worked for the NPS but my spouse did so I did get an insider view of sorts. A lot of he problems start when management (rules and regulations) of the park changes, usually as a reaction to a problem that should have been addressed much sooner. Things like snowmobiles in Yellowstone or ORVs in CHNS or forced compliance of Acts of Congress.  Businesses outside park become established that cater to specific clientele that uses the park for specific activities.  The local businesses and the habitual users of particular park become one and the same. The users and local businesses come to view the particular park as "theirs".  Some local NPS employees (usually maintenance) that live in the community are not on the same page as interp, LEO or resource divisions. This results in problems, things being said and stories being told. The new regulations involve politicians creating all kind of problems (FOIAs and meetings with the local recreational groups) that takes up the time and energy of everyone and increasing the work load of mangement. All the NPS superintendents are beholding to higher level managers and are political animals to some degree. The habitual visitors to the particular park look for any excuse to grind their axe never missing a chance to make a mountain out of a molehill, exacerbating the problems. This further separates the visitors from the staff and adversarial working conditions for all the Park's employees.


Buxton, I think you hit one of several nails on the head.


What you describe is undoubtedly true in some cases, but is also a narrative that is drug out for ad hominem attacks on the credibility of local staff when they point out problems with the shiny new plan.   It is used to rationalize ignoring the opinions of the people who know the most about an area, if those opinions differ from management's.  The capture of NPS management by local business interests could certainly be a problem, but in my opinion it is currently not nearly as large of a problem as the short termism, ill informed decision making, and capture by managers' personal interests that is the result of such rapid churning of upper management.

There is a strong ideological current in the NPS that paints private business as innately bad, politically connected corporate despoilers of the land, only out for their own quick buck.  Again, certainly true in some cases, but not all and not even most.  I find it odd because these are the people at the front lines of the economic activity the NPS is so quick to point out as an advantage of having parks.  At least around the podunk parks where I work, the businesses are family owned affairs geared toward helping people enjoy the parks.  They provide basic things like food, lodging, horse packing, and canoe trips.  They are not making some fantastic killing, often make less money than even low level park managers.  The only politically connected corporate outfits that I see are the concessionaires the NPS brings in.  The local businesses are in it for the long haul, and are trying to plan around an agency that is in a constant state of change as managers leave and new ones come in.  They have every right to expect to be consulted and kept informed.  They are "partners" just as much as the various non profits are partners.  in the big picture they are some of the most loyal allies a park can have, even if they disagree with specific policies.  But sometimes they are treated as enemies, and NPS employees are treated as 5th columnists for interacting with them on a basis of mutual respect and understanding.



The new regulations involve politicians creating all kind of problems (FOIAs and meetings with the local recreational groups) that takes up the time and energy of everyone and increasing the work load of management.


This is basic civics.  Responsive government.   If a park manager regards a meeting with a local recreation group as a problem, they are probably in the wrong line of work.  Why should NPS management expect to be able to make whatever decisions they want without consulting local interests?  This is the stuff that drives me crazy.  You have people who think they are so much smarter than the locals that not only should they be able to plan  in a vacuum, they shouldn't even have to inform the people who are most affected.  I've seen press releases come out that are flat out lies.  I've had managers tell me that if one of my neighbors asks me a question, I have to lie to them, just so the manager doesn't have to take  a call from someone who disagrees with them.

If the decisions they are making are the right ones, and often they are, then management should have the guts to stand up and explain their thinking to anyone who asks.  That is their job.  I think a lot of people in the NPS have this feeling that because they work for the NPS, everything they do is automatically good, everyone who questions them is therefore bad, and basic tenets of open government  and accountability do not apply to them.

Will, unfortunately what you describe is not isolated only to NPS circles.  I submit it is true in virtually any profession that is subject to political interference -- and political interference comes not only from lawmakers, but as Bruxton has pointed out, an almost endless menangerie of other special interests as well.

As a retired teacher, let me edit your first paragraph to reflect education instead of NPS:

. . . is also a narrative that is drug out for ad hominem attacks on the credibility of local teaching staffs when they point out problems with the shiny new plan. It is used to rationalize ignoring the opinions of the people who know the most about an area, if those opinions differ from management's. The capture of educational management by ( local strikeout isn't working) often distant business interests and various segments of both liberal and conservative legislators and the public could certainly be a problem, but in my opinion it is currently not nearly as large of a problem as the short termism, ill informed decision making, and capture by managers' personal interests and special interests that exert influence upon them that is the (strike out result) cause of such rapid churning of upper management.

I firmly believe that most of the problems that face professionals of all kinds is meddling by people far removed from the scene who too often have some kind of vested financial interest in whatever they are trying to influence.

The local businesses you point to in your essay are probably analagous to students and their parents in our public schools.  What you are trying to cite is correct, but is not restricted to NPS concerns.  It's epidemic throughout our society.

So how do we go about trying to change it?

So how do we go about trying to change it?


Simple, the problem you describe is precisely due to an overreaching federal government.  Return to our roots, limit federal intrusions to those Constitutionally permitted and return local control. 

Unfortunately, you are against all those things. 


I agree that the problem is not confined to the NPS.  As long as we have institutions, we will have institutional dysfunction.  What sets the NPS (and teaching, for that matter) apart, and gives us a unique opportunity to do better, is that we attract a lot of people who are not in it entirely for the money.  We still have to feed our families, but it isn’t the only thing.  We have people who find a job that they want to stay in and do well for its own sake, rather than so they can climb the ladder.  People like that are the best chance any institution has to blunt the effect of the Peter Principle.  Currently, from where I stand,  these people are treated with suspicion and contempt by the ladder climbers who make up the majority of managers.  So the way to fix it is to make keeping the good long term employees, and sidelining or removing the ladder climbers,  a priority.  Reduce management churn.  Stop paying relocation expenses for permanent employees who move every few years to further their own careers.    Pursue policies which give hiring preference for permanent jobs to seasonals who have proven themselves in that specific operation, and who are committed to that specific park.  Step up and remove poor performers, rather than wait for them to take their next promotion.  End the culture of the NPS can do no wrong.  Stop trying to use public goodwill toward the parks as a shield against meaningful accountability for the park service.   Maybe that is a pipe dream, but it shouldn’t have to be.  We are spending money taken from the public by the governement, to be used for the common good.  That is a huge responsibility, larger than that facing any private business owner or manager.  We absolutely have to be held to a higher standard.

You have people who think they are so much smarter than the locals that not only should they be able to plan in a vacuum, they shouldn't even have to inform the people who are most affected. I've seen press releases come out that are flat out lies.

The sole reason I choose my nick name here, the NPS have treated us like we are too dumb to know any better, dismiss anything we say because they think we are too stupid. They have told us flat out lies and expect us to just shut up and make us out to be the problem. Some just transferred here think they know better. This kind of attitude has worsened in the last decade. Now we have no choice but to completely rock the boat and be made out to be bad guys. I know who is dumb and it ain't us.


It isn't that I think meddling from afar isn't a problem for most everyone. I don't think that this problem, which I believe to be one of the worst problems the NPS faces, is a result of outside meddling, unless you consider the NPS manager class to be outside meddlers.  There is no lobbyist putting pressure on a superintendent to hire the superintendent's kid's college roommate, or telling a new district ranger that he should get rid of the super competent guy who was passed over for his job.  There are no moneyed interests served by a manager refusing to fire a problem employee because it would be a tacit admission that he messed up when he hired him in the first place.  It is just a remarkably resilient good ol boys network.

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